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Energetic Conversion


  • Sourced From: Forest industries, lumber industries, wood processing industries⁶⁷
  • Form: Sawdust, wood particles⁷
  • Wood Size: Extra small (2x2x2 mm)⁸
  • Species: Hardwoods, oak, poplar
  • MC: 10% +/- 0.5%⁸
  • MC Scale: Low
  • Quantity: Large
  • Contamination: Low⁷
  • Value of Waste: Medium⁸
  • Complexity: Low⁸


  • Sourced From: Sawmill operations, yard waste, land clearning operations, demolition operations, panel manufacturing⁹
  • Form: Logs, branches, chips, pallets, sawdust, shavings, cut-offs⁹
  • Wood Size: Extra small (20x5x3 mm)⁸
  • Species: Hardwoods, softwoods, pine, spruce, fir, cedar, larch, redwood, alder, ash, beech, cherry, chestnut, elm, hickory, mahogany, maple, oak, rosewood, teak, walnut⁹
  • MC: 6% – 16%⁸
  • MC Scale: Medium
  • Quantity: Large
  • Contamination: Low¹⁰
  • Value of Waste: Low⁸
  • Complexity: Medium⁸

Boiler Fuel

  • Sourced From: Lumber industries, furniture manufacturing industries, and plywood plants¹⁹
  • Form: Sawdust, bark, hogged wood, shavings, chips, mill rejects, sanderdust, cut-offs, pallets¹⁹
  • Wood Size: Extra small
  • Species: Hardwoods, softwoods
  • MC: Not important but lower is better
  • MC Scale: Uncontrolled
  • Quantity: Large
  • Contamination: Low is better but medium is still useable
  • Value of Waste: Low
  • Complexity: Low
  • Miscellaneous: There is technology that captures particulate matter and other emissions to reduce the amount released into the atmosphere. Despite that, it is better to have little to no contamination in the wood.¹⁹


  • Sourced From: Landscaping operations, (urban) sawmill operations, yard waste⁴¹
  • Form: Cut-offs, logs, deadfall, pallets, fallen trees, stumps, branches⁴⁰ ⁴¹
  • Wood Size: Medium
  • Species:  Hardwoods, softwoods, oak, ash, beech, maple, pine, douglas fir, hickory, walnut, cherry³⁹
  • MC: Less than 20%⁴¹
  • MC Scale: Uncontrolled
  • Quantity: Medium
  • Contamination: Low⁴¹
  • Value of Waste: Low
  • Complexity: Low
  • Miscellaneous: Firewood must be seasoned to burn effectively.⁴¹


  • Sourced From: Sawmill operations⁴³
  • Form: Sawdust, shavings⁴²
  • Wood Size: Extra small 
  • Species: Hardwoods, softwoods⁴⁴
  • MC: 4%⁴²
  • MC Scale: Low
  • Quantity: Large
  • Contamination: Low⁴²
  • Value of Waste: Low
  • Complexity: Medium
  • Miscellaneous: Hardwood firelogs are best for fireplaces and heating the house and fueling the stove. Softwoods are good for kindling, campfires, and anything outdoors.⁴


  • Sourced From: Forest industries, sawmill operations, C&D operations⁴⁶
  • Form: Sawdust, shavings, chips, bark, dead trees, slabs, edgings, veneer cores, veneer clippings, sander dust, cut-offs, yard waste, tree trimmings, saw logs, pulp wood, pallets⁴⁶
  • Wood Size: Extra small
  • Species: Hardwoods⁴⁶
  • MC: Kiln dried⁴⁵
  • MC Scale: Low
  • Quantity: Large⁴⁶
  • Contamination: Low
  • Value of Waste: Medium
  • Complexity: High
  • Miscellaneous: Woody biomass is commonly pretreated to prepare for ethanol production.⁴⁵